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What makes the selection of appropriate measures so complex? Find out the pros and cons of example measures for climate protection and adaptation to climate change.

Measures for reaching climate neutrality

Transport sector 1

POSITIVE

Transport sector

There is in fact a decrease of carbon emissions by cars due to the reduction of fossil-fuelled combustion engines.

Transport sector 2

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

People might be using electric vehicles more now than they used to use their old cars: more car trips instead of using public transport, walking or cycling.

Transport sector 3

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

This on the other hand causes more traffic on roads, more congestion, more safety risks.

Transport sector 4

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

Energy use might not decrease as much as it could because people tend to buy larger cars in terms of weight and battery volume.

Infrastructure sector 1

NEGATIVE

Infrastructure sector

More carbon emissions are released because new power plants and places to charge the electric cars need to be built. 

Infrastructure sector 2

NEGATIVE

Infrastructure sector

This might mean higher taxes for the people. 

Industry sector 1

NEGATIVE

Industry sector

Carbon emissions increase because the production of vehicles - especially the mining of materials for batteries - releases more emissions. 

Land use sector 1

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

If more and more people move outside the cities, it causes more emissions (e.g.  building single family houses, longer commutes) and it might result in further road construction and more sealed surfaces. 

Land use sector 2

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

These sealed surfaces cause more heat in living environments and increase the risk of flooding and damage to infrastructure.

Land use sector 3

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

There is a conflict of space use because unsealed surfaces could be used for other purposes.  

Agriculture sector 1

NEGATIVE

Agriculture sector

More carbon emissions might be caused by less space for organic farming, and industries might produce more emissions to make enough food (important for securing food production).  

Agriculture sector 2

NEGATIVE

Agriculture sector

This might result in higher food prices and in general less organic food.   

Energy sector 1

POSITIVE

Energy sector

There are in fact less emissions emitted because electric cars have a better energy efficiency. 

Energy sector 2

NEGATIVE

Energy sector

But if more people want to buy electric cars, emissions may rise again if the resulting high peak demand in electricity cannot be covered by renewables only.

Energy sector 3

NEGATIVE

Energy sector

During busy times when many people use a lot of energy, the cost of energy might go up - so people will have to dig deeper into their pockets. There might also not be enough power for every purpose. This could mean that there's not sufficient energy left for personal transportation, e.g. electric cars. 

Public health sector 1

POSITIVE

Public health sector

There might be fewer health problems caused by air pollution, and maybe also by urban overheating, resulting ultimately in reduced carbon emissions.

Public health sector 2

NEGATIVE

Public health sector

On the other hand, people might develop more diseases when they aren't active enough. Due to higher resource and energy use in the health sector, this might result in increased carbon emissions.

Public health sector 3

NEGATIVE

Public health sector

This again might result in higher costs in health care and insurance. 

Transport sector 1

POSITIVE

Transport sector

There is in fact a decrease of carbon emissions by cars due to the reduction of fossil-fuelled combustion engines.

Transport sector 2

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

People might be using electric vehicles more now than they used to use their old cars: more car trips instead of using public transport, walking or cycling.

Transport sector 3

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

This on the other hand causes more traffic on roads, more congestion, more safety risks.

Transport sector 4

NEGATIVE

Transport sector

Energy use might not decrease as much as it could because people tend to buy larger cars in terms of weight and battery volume.

Infrastructure sector 1

NEGATIVE

Infrastructure sector

More carbon emissions are released because new power plants and places to charge the electric cars need to be built. 

Infrastructure sector 2

NEGATIVE

Infrastructure sector

This might mean higher taxes for the people. 

Industry sector 1

NEGATIVE

Industry sector

Carbon emissions increase because the production of vehicles - especially the mining of materials for batteries - releases more emissions. 

Land use sector 1

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

If more and more people move outside the cities, it causes more emissions (e.g.  building single family houses, longer commutes) and it might result in further road construction and more sealed surfaces. 

Land use sector 2

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

These sealed surfaces cause more heat in living environments and increase the risk of flooding and damage to infrastructure.

Land use sector 3

NEGATIVE

Land use sector

There is a conflict of space use because unsealed surfaces could be used for other purposes.  

Agriculture sector 1

NEGATIVE

Agriculture sector

More carbon emissions might be caused by less space for organic farming, and industries might produce more emissions to make enough food (important for securing food production).  

Agriculture sector 2

NEGATIVE

Agriculture sector

This might result in higher food prices and in general less organic food.   

Energy sector 1

POSITIVE

Energy sector

There are in fact less emissions emitted because electric cars have a better energy efficiency. 

Energy sector 2

NEGATIVE

Energy sector

But if more people want to buy electric cars, emissions may rise again if the resulting high peak demand in electricity cannot be covered by renewables only.

Energy sector 3

NEGATIVE

Energy sector

During busy times when many people use a lot of energy, the cost of energy might go up - so people will have to dig deeper into their pockets. There might also not be enough power for every purpose. This could mean that there's not sufficient energy left for personal transportation, e.g. electric cars. 

Public health sector 1

POSITIVE

Public health sector

There might be fewer health problems caused by air pollution, and maybe also by urban overheating, resulting ultimately in reduced carbon emissions.

Public health sector 2

NEGATIVE

Public health sector

On the other hand, people might develop more diseases when they aren't active enough. Due to higher resource and energy use in the health sector, this might result in increased carbon emissions.

Public health sector 3

NEGATIVE

Public health sector

This again might result in higher costs in health care and insurance. 

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